Protected Areas

What is a protected area?  The guidelines developed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature define several levels of internationally recognized protected area designations.  But, sometimes these designations are hard to understand.  So, below is a brief description of each category and examples of areas around the world that fit into each category.  Follow the hyperlink on each example to learn more.

Category I: Strict Protection

Category Ia: Strict nature reserve – strictly protected areas set aside to protect biodiversity and also possibly geological/geomorphological features, where human visitation, use and impacts are strictly controlled and limited to ensure protection of the conservation values. Such protected areas can serve as indispensable reference areas for scientific research and monitoring.

Examples: Askaniya Nova National Biosphere Zapovednik, Ukraine; The Alberto Manuel Brenes Biological Reserve, Costa Rica; Great Victoria Desert Nature Reserve, Australia

Category Ib: Wilderness area – usually large unmodified or slightly modified areas, retaining their natural character and influence, without permanent or significant human habitation, which are protected and managed so as to preserve their natural condition.

Examples: Denali Wilderness Area, USA; Avon Wilderness Park, Australia; Groendal Wilderness Area, South Africa

Category II: National park – large natural or near natural areas set aside to protect large-scale ecological processes, along with the complement of species and ecosystems characteristic of the area, which also provide a foundation for environmentally and culturally compatible spiritual, scientific, educational, recreational and visitor opportunities.

Examples: Yellowstone National Park, USA; Mount Field National Park, Australia; Khao Laem Nationl Park, Thailand

Category III: Natural monument or feature – protected areas set aside to protect a specific natural monument, which can be a land form, sea mount, submarine cavern, geological feature such as a cave or even a living feature such as an ancient grove. They are generally quite small protected areas and often have high visitor value.

Examples: Natural Bridges National Monument, USA; Ganga Lake Natural Monument, Mongolia; Bosques Petrificados National Monument, Argentina

Category IV: Habitat/species management area – protected areas to protect particular species or habitats and whose management reflects this priority. Many category IV protected areas will need regular, active interventions to address the requirements of particular species or to maintain habitats, but this is not a requirement of the category.

Examples: Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge, USA; Central Kalahari Game Reserve, Botswana; Ship Cove Scenic Reserve, New Zealand

Category V: Protected landscape/seascape – a protected area where the interaction of people and nature over time has produced an area of distinct character with significant ecological, biological, cultural and scenic value: and where safeguarding the integrity of this interaction is vital to protecting and sustaining the area and its associated nature conservation and other values.

Examples: Lyngmarken Landscape Protected Area, Greenland; Loch Lomond and the Trossachs National Park, UK

Category VI: Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources – protected areas which conserve ecosystems and habitats, together with associated cultural values and traditional natural resource management systems. They are generally large, with most of the area in a natural condition, where a proportion is under sustainable natural resource management and where low-level non-industrial use of natural resources compatible with nature conservation is seen as one of the main aims of the area.

Examples: Wudangshan Scenic Area, China; Rivière George Faunal Habitat, Canada; Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal